Q & A

Q & A: High Intensity Continuous Training

Q: Hey Steve, I came across your post on HICT with step-ups, and I was wondering if you could answer some questions I have. I am 25-year old recreational athlete trying to improve my conditioning, mainly for basketball. 1. How do you use this type of training within a program? How many times per week? Do you use it in concert with other methods of conditioning as well? And do you perform this work separate from any other training, or before/after a strength session?

2. You mentioned doing HICT via a spin bike rather than step-ups, and I have seen Joel Jamieson and Mark McLaughlin also mention this. Do you use both methods, and if so, for what purposes would you choose one over the other? What are the differences?

Thank you in advance for any answers you may have. I am new to your site and look forward to exploring it more, keep up the good work.

(Note from Steve: For those unfamiliar with HICT step-ups, it is a conditioning protocol, probably invented by Satan, in which you load up your back with an extremely heavy weight vest or backpack and do step-ups for sets of 10-20 minutes at a time. Because of the high resistance yet long duration, it develops the oxidative capacity of the fast twitch muscle fibers. Brutal yet certainly effective.)

A: Good questions! With regards to Question #1, the answer is - as typical within the sphere of strength and conditioning - "it depends."  Let's break down each of your subquestions one by one:

How do you use this type of training within a program?

It depends on where the athlete currently stands with regards to his or her schedule, external stressors (ex. how many times a week is he/she practicing or competing), internal stressors (Girlfriend just break up with them? In depression because no one "Liked" their recent Facebook status?), what their physical condition looks like, and their goals. Are they currently inseason or offseason, what other "qualities" do they need to work on; for example, do they currently need to improve strength or power output? How many days a week do they have to train? Can they train 2x/day on some days but not at all on others? Answers to all the above questions will affect how to employ HICT within the program!

To simplify things a bit: If your PRIMARY goal is to improve aerobic conditioning, then you should prioritize something like HICT in your weekly training structure. Here are four different ways I recommend setting it up, depending on your schedule:

Option 1 (two-a-day workouts) - Strength or power work in the AM, and then HICT in the PM

Option 2 - HICT as a standalone training session

Option 3 - Sport practice immediately followed by HICT. The HICT would act as a pseudo "active recovery" and restorative tactic.

Option 4 - HICT and strength training in the same session. HICT would go first because your priority is aerobic conditioning. (Note: If you're someone who has a lot of strength and power to gain, you would train those qualities FIRST in the session.)

How many times per week?

One to two times per week. Begin with 1x/week, assess tolerance and recovery, and gradually increase the frequency to 2x/week.

Do you use it in concert with other methods of conditioning as well?

Yes, absolutely! While you certainly don't want to utilize everything and anything at the same time, something like HICT can certainly complement other conditioning modalities such as running or cardiac output circuits*.

To truly develop one's aerobic system, it takes more than just one or two haphazard sessions per week, or deciding to just "throw in" 10-20 minutes of aerobic training at the end of a resistance training session. I'd ensure you're undergoing some form of aerobic training 4-6 days a week, provided you remain prudent with the modalities and intensities you implement, of course.

However, don't neglect the fact that just playing basketball is aerobic training in nature! Thus, your pick-up games and competition games must be accounted for when analyzing your total volume of training in a given week.

*Note: These are actually one of my favorite methods of developing the aerobic energy system during the initial phases of training and/or during periods in which one has many competing demands outside the gym walls,  as the risk of overreaching is extremely low.

And do you perform this work separate from any other training, or before/after a strength session?

While I touched on this a bit during the answer to your first question, let's expound a bit further here.  The research is actually a bit mixed with regards to "mixing" aerobic training and strength training in the same session:

  • This meta-analysis by Wilson et al. (2012) showed a loss in power when endurance training was trained concurrently with strength training, but no decline in VO2max when the endurance+strength group was compared to the endurance-only group.
  • This paper by Want et al. (2011) concluded that endurance training immediately followed by strength training actually INCREASED mitochondrial growth compared to endurance-only training. (Mitochondrial growth will augment the muscles' oxidative capacity, thus improving one's endurance.)
  • This paper by Hawley showed that conditioning before strength training blunts the anabolic effect of strength training, while conditioning after strength traning leads to greater amounts of inflammation and protein degradation.

(Note: Credit to Patrick Ward for pointing a couple of those out.)

While I obviously don't prefer to allow solely on research to dictate what I do and do not do with my athletes - after all, most research subjects are woefully untrained, along with the fact that many of the research protocols (ex. machine leg extensions for the "strength" exercise) are a far cry from what I use in the real world - it certainly still helps things to take a look at what goes on at the molecular level with human physiology.

So, what to do? Personally, I think it's ideal to separate the strength and endurance sessions completely - either by 8 hours or 24 hours - but this assumes that you have nearly every day of the week to train, and are able to fit in these sessions OUTSIDE of your practice and game schedule.

If you can't afford to split up the training sessions, then train FIRST what you want to prioritize, and then scale back the volume and intensity on the other goal. So if your goal is improved aerobic function, then do HICT first and follow it up with low volume strength training; for example, 2-3 exercises for 2-3 sets at 75-80% intensity. If your primary goal is strength, then attack your resistance training and follow that session up with HICT or a cardiac output circuit.

2. You mentioned doing HICT via a spin bike rather than step-ups.....Do you use both methods, and if so, for what purposes would you choose one over the other? What are the differences?

I primarily use step-ups with our athletes, but that is more a function of the fact that we don't have a spin bike in our facility.  Not to mention, even if you do have a spin bike, it needs on the higher end of quality (ex. something you'd find in a good spin class) to be capable of cranking up the resistance so high that it's literally impossible to pedal quickly; you won't typically find these bikes sitting out in the cardio sections of gyms.

Here's a brief listing of the pros and cons of each:

Spin Bike

Pros - Less eccentric stress than a step-up, so theoretically less muscle soreness during the days following the HICT session; this also means a spin bike would probably be better suited for an active recovery and restorative tool compared to step-ups. No weight vest or heavy backpack required.

Cons - Requires access to a good spin bike. The "hunched" over position of biking forces a more flexed posture in general during the entire set: Kyphotic t-spine, shortened hip flexors, internal rotation of the shoulders, no hip extension achieved at any point (bad for glute function).


Pros - No spin bike required. Achieve way more glute recruitment than on a bike, due to the glutes driving you up all the way to full hip extension at the top. Is much more of a total body workout than a spin bike as the bike will pretty much only hit the quads, but the step-ups will hammer the glutes, hamstrings, quads, not to mention the upper back+traps  will be blasted during the weighted step-ups as these muscle groups have work like crazy to hold the weight vest or backpack in place.

Cons - More eccentric loading on the knees/legs when compared to a bike, so need to be more careful about where you fit them (step-ups) into the training week. Possibly worse for those with knee pain issues. Requires a heavy weight vest or large, heavy backpack.

Hope this helps! There is no doubt that HICT is certainly effective, but caution must be adhered to when planning and progressing it. Start on the low end of frequency and volume, and don't be in a rush to progress too fast too soon.

Common Exercise Corrections: Pain in The Knee During Lunging

Installment numero three-o in the common exercise fix series. To recap: 99% of the time it's not the exercise, it's the execution that's causing issues.

So, let's say you're doing a split squat, step back lunge, forward/walking lunge or some other lunging variation that I forgot to mention and, oh bugger, your knee hurts.

If you have pain in the front knee...

- Check your shin angle. If it's not perpendicular to the floor... then you probably are experiencing pain in the front of your knee.

Look at that shin!

- Check your variation. Some folks just can't do forward-moving lunges. Switch to a reverse lunge (above) or split squat variation, thus minimizing the sheer force on the knee (also, of course, maintaining that vertical shin).

- Still having problems? Check how you're applying force through your foot. (Sorry, that was an awkward sentence) Are you pushing through the ball of your foot to stand up or your heel? Pushing through your heel will put the stress of standing up on your glute (instead of the quad) and your glutes are a LOT better at producing hip extension than your quads. Matter of fact, think about pulling yourself upright through your heel as you stand up. (This applies to step-ups too.)

If you have pain in the back knee...

- Check your back leg's placement. Are you in line or is the back leg at a goofy angle? You want to stand about hip-width apart and make sure that your knee is going straight down (instead of in or out at an angle). How does one create such a delightfully descending back knee? Squeeze your butt. It should straighten out any wild knees.

- Check your variation. Maybe switch to a lunge exercise that doesn't require the back leg to work as hard, a Bulgarian split squat, might work as you're not supposed to use the back leg as much.

Note* this has an ISO hold at the beginning of the set.

- Still hurting the back knee? Perhaps try a different single leg exercise such as a bowler squat, a single leg squat progression or single leg RDL. Those will help train the posterior chain (which might be the source of your knee pain, weak glutes or hamstrings) as well as your hip stabilizers (adductors, glute medii, quadratus lumborum) as it might be an instability in your hips that are causing the knee pain.

If, after trying all these fixers, your knees still hurt, well, don't do lunges (you're in the percentage of folks that just need to stay away from them). There are plenty of other single-leg exercises out there that are just as awesome!

Common Exercise Corrections: Lower Back Pain in Deadlifting and Squatting

I hope everyone fared hurricane Sandy safely! We"re so thankful that worst of it bypassed the DC area!! Thoughts and prayers go out to those in NY and NJ which seemed to have brunt of Sandy"s fury poured out upon them!

Secondly, a GINORMOUS congratulations to the following SAPT ladies who made the all-district volleyball teams:

1st team- Caitlyn, Eliza and Hannah

2nd team - Kenzie

Honorable mention- Clare, Maggie and Carina

Congratulations ladies!! All your hard work in here paid off!

Anyway, onward and upward. As stated in my previous corrections post, it"s usually not the exercise that"s causing pain, it"s the execution.

Today"s topic: Lower back pain/irritation during a squat or deadlift.

From the outside eye, everything looks great: Lower back is tight and has a slight arch, the upper back is stiff, the hips are moving back like they should... but there"s a niggling pain in the lower back. What gives?

This is a perfect example. Kerry looks pretty good for the most part, but she had a little bit of a pain in her lower back as she pulled. (thankfully she told me. Lesson to trainees: coaches, though we are Jedis, we can"t always tell if you"re having a pain. Speak up!) As was the case with Kerry, more often that not, the athlete isn"t bracing the abs or is not using the glutes as much as (s)he needed.


- "Brace your abs like Now we’re back to college student credit cards based systems, pretty much the world over. you"re about to get punched" is a standard cue I tell athletes. We incorporate bracing drills, to learn proper bracing technique, but this cue will work in a pinch if the athlete hasn"t mastered bracing yet.

- "Start squeezing your glutes/cracking the walnut BEFORE you pull off the ground." (alternately, in a squat, I tell the athlete to "spread the floor with their feet" on the way down and the way up) This cue usually makes the athlete more aware of their glutes and helps them think about using them more. By activating the glutes BEFORE the pull, it acts like a primer button for a lawn mower, it gets the engine ready to work! When they glutes are doing their job well then there"s much less strain on the lower back musculature.

Again, there isn"t much visually that changed between the first and the second video, but Kerry didn"t have pain and the pull looked much more solid and confident.

So, if you have a nagging pain, brace and crack the walnut! 9 times out of 10 that will clear it all up!

Q & A: Can I Add an Extra Session to my College Strength and Conditioning Program?

I recently received the email below from one of our student-athletes who's currently playing D1 baseball for a university, and I thought I'd share the question+response for those of you who may be interested. Hey Steve,

I just had a quick question for you. Right now, the lifts we are doing as a team are pretty intense, but only last about 30-45 mins. I feel tired at the end of them, but don't feel like I am getting the necessary amount of work in. Obviously I have to do the team lifts but is there anything else I can be doing on my own to try and increase my strength? Right now, we do Squats-mon, Bench-wed, and close grip press-friday, however, all three days we do complete body work in some way. I know, two bench lifts in a row...bad. One day is bad enough. Could I be doing dead lifts on Sat or something?

Any input you could give me would be great. Thanks.

Always a good time when you're bench pressing twice a week, on back-to-back lifting days, right? Especially in the context of a baseball strength and conditioning program, given that bench press numbers have consistently shown such a strong correlation with rotational power, throwing speed, and batting average......Or not.

First of all, I'm honest when I say I'm extremely proud of you for recognizing some of the "holes" in the program you're doing, and your drive to make yourself better by working hard even outside of the mandatory lifting hours you're required to complete with your team. And while bench pressing can certainly have its place in a good resistance training regimen, you hit the nail on the head by recognizing that it may not be the best option for you personally, given your sport and time constraints.

That being said, there are two points worth noting before we continue:

1) In a strength and conditioning program, you can't always just "keep adding." Your body, unfortunately, only has a limited capacity to recover, and there comes a point where adding extra exercises, training days, etc. can hurt you more than help you.

Stealing an analogy from Tim Ferris: “To boil water, the minimum effective dose is 212ºF (100ºC) at standard air pressure. Boiled is boiled. Higher temperatures just consume more resources that could be used for something else more productive.”

Carrying this analogy over to your strength training regimen, you have to be sure that your body's "pot of water" is not already set to "boiling." If it IS, then adding extra stressors (exercises, training days, etc.) are only going to actuate more fatigue, lengthen your recovery time, and could actually REDUCE your power output and strength.

So: Give yourself an honest, unbiased, introspective assessment into how you're doing. Are you at "boiling" already? If not, then proceed with #2.

2) Since #1 is true, then you must begin your quest of adding an extra session by using the lowest intensity and the least amount of volume in order to incite adaptation.

See how your body responds and feels during the following week - both in the weight room and out on the baseball field - and then you can continue to tweak and refine from there, but still only adding the "minimum effective dose," and nothing more, to see continued improvement.

William of Occam said it best:

"It is vain to do with more what can be done with less."


You're on the right track suggesting a "deadlift day" for Saturday. Provided you're smart about it, I think it could really help fill in the missing gaps you're currently facing, along with providing you the perfect stimulus for continued strength and power gains.

Based on what you told me, I'm guessing that your coach isn't having you all do any dynamic effort work. Since most of your barbell work is probably being done at heavy loads+slow speeds (or "absolute strength" work) you could definitely use some work on the "speed-strength" end of the continuum.

Enter: Speed Deadlifts.

I love speed deadlifts for four reasons:

  1. Provided you do them correctly, they have enormous potential to actually refresh you upon completion, leaving you feeling charged up and ready to kick down the doors of the playing field (if your playing field has doors....)
  2. They provide an EXCELLENT way to tap into the higher threshold motor units, namely, those that have the greatest potential for force production. They also assist in neurotransmitter uptake and release, along with positively impacting the excitation-contraction coupling mechanism in muscle cells, for you exercise physiology nerds in the crowd.
  3. Since you'd typically perform multiple sets at a load load and low rep scheme, it's certainly a good time to hone in on technique, practicing the set-up and execution multiple times in one session.
  4. If you move the weight AS FAST AS HUMANLY POSSIBLE, and if you're good at doing this, then you experience the inevitable pleasure of causing everyone unfortunate enough to be around you at the time to destroy the backs of their pants.

For your first session, I'd recommend starting off with 6 sets of 2 reps, at 50% of your 1-rep max, with :45-:60 rest between sets.

And move the bar as fast as you can.

Did I mention you need to move the bar as fast as possible?*

Toss in some very low volume horizontal rowing (bent over DB rows, chest-supported rows, single-arm cable rows, etc.) and some scapular stability work (low box walkovers, forearm wallslides, easy pushups, etc.) after your deadlifts and call it a day.

Hopefully your coach doesn't mind you doing this, either. If he does, you may very well have to enter the weight room surreptitiously and pray he doesn't catch you.

The most important thing will be to start with the LEAST required to get stronger, LISTEN to what your body is telling you, and then make further adjustments (if even necessary) from there.

*You need to move the bar as fast as possible.

Q & A: How to Write Resistance Training Programs, Part 6: A Blueprint

Q: Hi Steve,I’m very new to the powerlifting/strong(wo)man training world … and I love reading your blog! It’s always chock full with information. One thing I was wondering, and maybe it’d be a topic to write about … how do you come up with workouts?? Do you make stuff up?? Have a “grab-bag” of moves and pull out of that?? Borrow and modify from other trainers??  I always wonder where trainers come up with new ideas.

Thank you for all the great info!!

A. For those of you who have missed it, you can find Part 1 (Train Yourself), Part 2 (Coaching), Part 3 (Practice Writing Programs), Part 4 (Try Yourself, and Borrow/Steal), and Part 5 (Perfectionism) in the respective links. FINALLY, we're going to wrap up today with a few "blueprint" suggestions.

This is going to be far from a comprehensive list, but hopefully it will get you started on the right track and shed some light into a few things that go through my brain as I right programs. Honestly, I'm just going to spill out a few bullet points as they come to me, so forgive me for the potential non sequitur and/or lack of structure that may appear below.

6. Bluprint


  • Yes, I do have a "grab-bag of moves" that I pull from. I make sure that every program contains at least one exercise from the following categories: Squat, Hinge, Pull, Push, and, stealing a chapter from Dan John's book, a Loaded Carry. I have a list of exercises from each category, and pick and choose from them based on the athlete and his or her needs.


  •  For stronger athletes, 10 total REPS is a good number to hit for the main lift in one session. Ex. 3x3, 2x5, 5x2 will be plenty to make them stronger, while at the same time not frying them.
  • For the in-season athlete, stop the workout if they begin to feel exhausted and/or more tired than when they walked through the door. In-season training should "fire them up" and allow them to perform better (duh?), so there's no need to beat them into the ground. A general rule of them would be to reduce the volume by 50-65%, and primarily focus on the main, compound movement of the day.In fact, it's funny as we've had numerous baseball players tell us they had some of their best games (in-season) the day after training at SAPT because their CNS was so charged up.
  • Everyone needs mobility drills, but not everyone needs them in the same places (ex. while Person A may need some closed-chain ankle dorsiflexion work, Person B may not need it at all).
  • 3-4 main movements per day is really all most people need to reach their goals. Anything more than than that and you get become mediocre at a lot of things instead of great at a couple things (and I'm not just talking about the actual lifts in the gym). Give it your all on just a couple lifts each week, instead of half-hearted effort on a bazillion exercises.
  • This list could literally go on for pages, but I'll stop now as I'm out of time. In actuality, if you follow Parts I, II, and III from this series for an extended period of time you *should* discover a lot of this yourself.

Note: In case you missed Sarah's notice from yesterday, SAPT is currently giving 25% off for our training sessions. Click HERE for more information, and spread the word!